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Full text of "The four continents, from the collection of James Hazen Hyde;"

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THE FOUR CONTINENTS 







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THE FOUR CONTINENTS 



FROM THE COLLECTION OF JAMES HAZEN HYDE 



MAY 1 4 1986 
libraries 



The Cooper Union Museum Cooper Square, New York 3 



M-60 

R ef-. 



T/?e works o/art described in the following pages are delightful in themselves, and in pursuing their 
theme— worldly in the best sense!— they also give pleasant testimony to the high achievement of 
the designers and craftsmen of earlier periods. While in their excellence these objects speak most 
eloquently, their welcome presence in the Cooper Union Museum permits the Museum to record 
its gratitude for the great generosity with which the late fames Hazen Hyde selected them from his 
entire collection, as being those that he considered most useful and desirable for the strengthening of 
the collections of the Museum. Such interest in knowing the most urgent needs of the Museum, and 
generosity in helping to supply them, were characteristic of this friendly benefactor during the many 
years of his informed and intelligent support of the Museum's undertakings. 

The Cooper Union Museum, in publishing the present catalogue, is happy also to enjoy the 
collaboration of Professor Louis Reau, Membre de Vlnstitut, whose long friendship with Mr. Hyde 
gives particular value to the paragraphs that he has been so kind as to write for the Museum. 

CALVIN S. HATHAWAY 



Copyright © 1961 by the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration. Printed in U. S.A. 




JAMES HAZEN HYDE 

et son role d'ambassadeur culturel 
entre les Etats-Unis et la France 



L'annonce dc la niort cle James Hazen Hyde, survenue le 28 juillet 1959 a Saratoga Springs, 
a ete ressentie en France, ou il a vecu de longues annees jusqu'a la seconde Guerre mondiale 
et ou il comptait beaucoup d'amis, coninie une perte infiniment regrettable au point de 
vue des relations intellectuelles et artistiques entre la France et les Etats-Unis. 

Il etait devenu en efFet, officieusernent sinon officiellement, un trait d'union entre son 
pays d'origine et sa patrie adoptive, soit en developpant les echanges de professeurs entre 
les Universites des deux pays que l'Ocean Atlantique unit autant qu'il les scpare, soit en 
exercant la prcsidence de la Federation de 1' Alliance Francaisc aux Etats-Unis et au Canada. 

Les merites de cet Americain, ami sincere et fidele de la France dans les annees de guerre 
et de detresse comme dans l'euphorie de la paix retrouvce, avaient etc reconnus en 1938 
par l'une des sections de l'lnstitut de France, 1' Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiqucs, 
qui l'avait elu membre associe. 

Dans sa residence parisienne de la rue Adolphe Yvon a Passy aussi bien que dans sa 
magnifique propriete de Versailles, 011 sesjardins, traces dans lc gout de Lenotre, rivalisaient 
avec ceux du Roi-Soleil, il se plaisait a recevoir une elite intcllectuelle de savants, d'ecri- 
vains et d'artistes qu'il mettait en rapport avec ses compatriotes de passage a Paris. Beaucoup 
d'idees fecondes ont ete echangees dans ces receptions, intimes ou fastueuses, qui ont con- 
tribue tres efFicacemeiit a crccr une atmosphere de comprehension mutuelle. 

En quittant la France pour regagner New-York, il tint a lui laisser un gage de son 
affection et un cadeau d'adieu en donnant au Musee des Arts Decoratifs la magnifique 
bibliotheque dc livres d'Art qu'il avait constitute: liberalite d'autant plus precieuse que 
le fonds des ouvrages en langues ctrangeres, particulierement en anglais et en allcmand, 
etait relativement pauvre. 

Sa collection d'oeuvres d'art ne presentait pas un moindre interet que sa bibliotheque; 
il s'etait specialise dans l'etude d'un sujet qui le passionait: l'iconographie des quatre 
Parties du Monde. Il avait publie sous ce titre un excellent article, tres documente et 
abondamment illustre, dans la Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Cet article etait base sur des re- 
cherches personnelles et tenait compte, pour la premiere fois, des ouvrages de toute 
nature: plafonds peints, tapisseries, tableaux et gravures ou est traite ce theme decoratif 
devenu si populaire a partir de la decouverte de l'Amerique par Christophe Colomb. 

Le Moyen-age ne connaissait que trois continents, symbolises par les trois Rois Mages 
apportant leurs presents a l'Enfant Jesus : l'Europe, l'Asie et 1'Afrique. Du jour ou les 
Parties du Monde furent en nombre pair, comme les Quatre Saisons, les decorateurs, qui 
sont toujours genes par les nombres impairs, adopterent ce motif qui pretait a des effets 
de pittoresque exotique. 

Je suis particulierement heureux que l'eminent Directeur du Musee d'Arts Decoratifs 
de la Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, Mr. Calvin S. Hathaway, 
avec lequel j'etais entre en relation a. Paris grace a James H. Hyde, m'ait offert l'occasion 



d'apporter mon hommage personnel a ce grand ami de la France, envers lequel j'avais a 
acquitter une dette de gratitude. 

C'est a son aniitie que je dois d'avoir fait a deux reprises des tournces de conferences 
aux Etats-Unis et au Canada, dans les Universites et les cercles de membres de 1' Alliance 
Francaise. J'ai tenu pour cette raison a lui dedier le livre quej'ai public en 1926, au retour 
d'un de ces voyages, smL'Artfraucais aux Etats-Unis. 

Il s'interessait particulierement au grand sculpteur Houdon, qui fit le premier en 1785 
la traversee de l'Atlantique pour executer de visu, d'apres nature, la statue en marbre du 
general Washington, commandee par l'Etat de Virginia pour le Capitole de Richmond. 

Sachant que je preparais depuis longtemps une monographic de ce statuaire qui fur, 
comme lui, un trait d'union entre la France et l'Amerique, il eut la gentillesse de mettre a 
ma disposition toutes les fiches bibliographiques rassemblees sous sa direction par ses 
bibliothecaires et secretaires. 

Ces materiaux m'ont ete fort utiles pour la redaction du Catalogue critique des statues 
et des bustes de Houdon qui sera annexe a mon ouvrage en cours d'impression. 

La generosite et le desinteressement dont fit preuve pendant sa longue vie James H. 
Hyde, toutes les fois qu'il s'agissait de promouvoir et de renforcer, dans le domaine de 
1' Art et de la Science, la traditionnelle amitie franco-amencaine, font le plus grand honneur 
a sa memoire. 

louis reau, Mcmbre de Vlnstitut 



THE FOUR CONTINENTS: 



An Allegory for Artists 



In an era preoccupied with astrophysical exploration, the familiar subject of geography — 
literally the description of the Earth's surface — may appear as cozily outmoded as a Model 
T in comparison with a jet. We are no longer awed by distances and discoveries on the 
face of the globe ; nor can we be, in the presence of scientific speculations revolving around 
the possibilities of life on stars and planets that were no more than sparkles on our 
ancestors' solid blue firmament. The wonderment at faraway countries, reached only by 
daring adventurers or invincible conquerors, is no longer ours. Nor would tales of dog- 
headed peoples and mythical beasts like the unicorn find many listeners among the stay- 
at-homes who now can tune in the latest reports of rockets and satellites. Our world is 
shrinking, as space concepts expand and become more familiar. Today's Sinbad is an 
astronaut, and our Candide may soon have to take his quest for education at least to a 
neighboring planet to present an illuminating satire on human society. 

Still, this Earth is our heritage and our anchor. In mankind's immediate past — the three 
or four millennia of our Western civilization as it spread in ever-widening circles 
from the Mediterranean basin— history and geography were practically synonymous. 
Each political development, be it war, civil strife or population growth, brought new 
needs for expansion, new expeditions beyond familiar boundaries into terra incognita. The 
garden of the Hesperides with its golden apples was thought to lie beyond the Pillars of 
the World, to be reached only by demi-gods like Hercules. But soon both Phoenicians 
and Greeks of more ordinary parentage ventured past the big rock of Gibraltar and 
explored the shores of Britain and Ultima Thule. 

The expanding, unfolding world, the excitement of new discoveries and new challenges 
and victories for the human spirit of enterprise were mirrored in sagas and epics, whether 
sung, written or carved in stone. The wonders of foreign lands, foreign peoples, strange 
customs and unfamiliar nature had to be recorded, and, where no words were used, they 
found their expression in symbols and allegories, soon understood by everybody. The 
dark captives marching in semi-frontal sameness across the walls of Pharaoh's tomb- 
chamber represented the subjugated countries to the south, rather than individual war 
prizes ; on Greek friezes, Persians in Phrygian caps assumed the collective role of Bar- 
barians ; and Vercingetorix in Caesar's triumphal cortege enhanced his victory as a symbol 
of conquered Gaul. 

Such personifications of geographic or ethnic units were related to those of ancient 
nature deities, like the river-gods on the pediments of the temple of Zeus in Olympia and 
of the Parthenon. In Hellenistic times, cities too were personified in the figure of a wall- 
crowned Tyche. When the sea, conquered, no longer separated the lands but rather 
provided a link between them, the idea of the continents emerged as a geographical 
concept. To the three— Asia, Africa and Europe— that bordered on the sea of the Ancient 
World, the fearless sailor-adventurers of the late fifteenth century added a fourth, 
America. Though representations of the first three occur in ancient art and during the 



Middle Ages, it was the addition of the fourth that truly endeared the subject to artists in 
all media. From the sixteenth century on, allegories of the Four Continents take their 
place beside those of the Four Seasons and the Four Elements in the imagery of the arts. 

First, they displaced the Four Winds from the corners of the ornate compasses and 
maps. Next, the title pages of books on new geographical discoveries, published in great 
numbers, became their domain. In engravings illustrating religious and political tracts 
they brought their universal homage to God and King. The princely courts delighted in 
them at carousels and masques, where fantastic chariots and costumed attendants followed 
each other. On ceilings of churches and palaces from Tsarskoe Selo to Aranjuez and 
from Palermo to Stockholm, provincial artists and painters of international fame depicted 
them with as much grace and artistry as their knowledge allowed, most spectacularly 
perhaps GiambattistaTiepolo in the Wiirzburg Residenz and the Royal Palace in Madrid. 
Augsburg goldsmiths worked relief medallions with the Four Continents into their 
masterpieces in silver-gilt, and Bohemian and Silesian glass engravers cut them into their 
fragile pokals. Fittingly, they were carved into exotic materials like rhinoceros horn and 
ostrich egg, and soon became the beloved subject of that new precious material of the 
eighteenth century, porcelain. Ridiculing the fashion of collecting it, Addison scathingly 
described a contemporary lady's library as containing "munkeys, mandarins and scara- 
mouches, but few books." Such figurines of exotic nationalities— Turks, Chinese, Black- 
amoors — surely preceded the groups of the Four Continents in the production of the 
Meissen factory. But neither Kandler, the prodigious master modeler, nor Eberlein, nor 
Meyer, could resist the subject. In the 1753 inventory of the "Conditorey" of Count 
Briihl, director of the factory, two sets are mentioned under the heading of large figures; 
the price list of 1765 enumerates not fewer than six different groups in varying sizes, some 
of them of putti. Frederick the Great, during the occupation of the factory in the Seven 
Years' War, ordered both a large and a small set. Catherine of Russia wished to see herself 
represented as the dominant figure in an immensely complicated surtont-de-table, ordered 
from the Berlin factory, with numerous attendants and vassals. 

Other porcelain factories followed the vogue for the Four Continents, with results 
varying from the elegance of a Ludwigsburg group to the awkward charm of one from 
Sweden's Marieberg. The artists used their own ideas, or those of other factories ; they 
relied on circulating engravings, or, less often, on original drawings. Among the former 
a frequently used set was engraved after Martin de Vos ; examples of the latter are Gott- 
fried Bernhard Gotz's drawings, which inspired two Meissen sets. Illustrations from 
travelogues were also used, without necessarily guaranteeing a more accurate representa- 
tion of the attributes of the Continents. 

Legends and tales told by far-flung voyagers depicted often more colorfully than reli- 
ably the wonders of distant countries. Fabulous wealth, fantastic animals, miraculous sub- 
stances, the Fountain of Youth and the Stone of Wisdom all had their home in the vague 
domains beyond the perimeter of the known world; and anything coming from those 
countries was expected to be fantastic and unreal, even abstruse, just as Jean Cocteau as a 
child believed that foreigners did not really have a language but feigned it only, speaking a 
meaningless gibberish. The qualities of the surreal and absurd were so closely wedded to 
the concept of the foreign that they often persisted long after more realistic reports had 
established a fund of reliable intelligence about the new countries. Increasing contacts did 
result in better knowledge, but only reluctantly were the fascinating myths abandoned, as 
with the abominable snowman in our own mid-century. Rather, with the irrepressible 
human penchant for masquerade, the real and the fantastic were fused together to provide a 
half-realistic, half-symbolic clothing for the images of distant lands. Thus costumes and 
headdresses, attributes and paraphernalia are far more telling than facial lineaments in the 
characterization of the Continents. 

Africa, with its dark-skinned peoples, its towering elephants and fierce lions, had early 



acquired its distinguishing attributes. A fountain in ancient Rome, a mosaic in Palestrina, 
among others, show female heads crowned by elephant heads, complete with trunk, tusks 
and ears. Through centuries Africa continued to be represented with this abstruse but un- 
mistakable head-gear, and although Asia occasionally is accompanied by an elephant, she 
is never thus crowned. The lion figures most frequently as the symbolic animal of Africa, 
deriving, like the elephant, from Carthaginian, North- African lore ; sometimes, however, 
the Nilotic concept dominates with a crocodile, perhaps as an echo of the many represen- 
tations of Father Nile. The camel really belongs to Asia, but is given to Africa on occasions, 
and quite logically so. The scorpion too is used, and the snake, again a reference to Egypt, 
as is the sheaf of wheat, and, by derivation, a cornucopia. The elephant tusk or branches of 
coral, endowed with miraculous healing powers, are other attributes of Africa, and for the 
martial side, quiver, bow and arrows. Feather skirts and headdresses are rare in early repre- 
sentations, and may very well have entered the artistic vocabulary by some kind of faulty 
deductive reasoning brought about by the Western slave trade, equating the African with 
the equally lightly-clad and uninhibited American Indian. Palms and pyramids are often 
pictured in the background, and the rays of a full sun disk are intercepted by leafy parasols. 

The image of barbaric Asia, as represented by the Greeks, was not as durable as the Ro- 
man personification of Africa. True to the all-encompassing spirit of the allegorical con- 
cept of the Four Continents, even the bloody memory of the crusades, the onslaught of the 
Saracens and the Turkish conquests were put aside in favor of a more peaceful image. Still, 
it was the Mohemmedan East that provided this image, China and other Far-Eastern coun- 
tries being too distant and too little known in their self-sufficient seclusion to take on such 
a symbolic role ; they achieved their own transposition into Western art in the chinoiseries 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

The fabulous wealth of the Orient, already a myth in the ancient world through the 
treasures of Darius, became the leitmotiv in the representations of Asia. With flowing 
jewelled robes and turbans and richly bedecked camels or elephants, with censers to burn 
the sweet perfumes of Araby, the riches of countries along and beyond the caravan routes 
were evoked, as they had been in the Gospel of Saint Matthew : the Wise Men, coming 
from the East, presented to the Christ Child "gold, and frankincense, and myrrh." 

The Magi, in a firmly-rooted Christian tradition, represent the three parts of the world, 
bringing tokens of their allegiance to the new-born King ; in creches as well as in Christmas 
plays, one of the Magi would wear a crown, the second a turban, and the third would have 
a black face— truly acting out the idea of the Three Continents, already suggested in the 
Old Testament by the three sons of Noah. In medieval illuminations and mosaics, the orb 
held by Christ is divided into three parts, inscribed with the names of the Continents, to 
suggest His reign "orbis et urbis." With the rise of Marian theology, the dogma of the Im- 
maculate Conception was symbolized in the figure of the Virgin standing on a globe and 
treading on the snake, to redeem the world through her purity from original sin. Still later, 
the Virgin or sometimes the personified Church, was represented receiving the homage of 
the Four Continents in their allegorical guise. 

Related to this representation is the image of Europe as it crystallized out of Christianity 
and humanism. In classical art, Europa was the princess from Asia Minor, abducted by Zeus 
in the guise of a bull and deposited on the northern shores of the Hellespont, subsequently 
named after her. Represented early in the 6th century B.C. on one of the metopes of the 
Sikyan treasury in Delphi, this mythological anecdote remained in favor, and is occasion- 
ally linked with the allegories of the Continents. However, the true personification of 
Europe in this context is the Queen ; her regal pose differs markedly from that of the playful 
and not altogether unwilling victim of the classical kidnapping story. Crowned and er- 
mined, holding orb and sceptre, she is the heiress to the Christian legacy, and its stronghold 
in the world. Her animal is the white horse of the princes, and her attributes trophies and 
symbols of the arts and sciences. 



If the attributes of Europe were easy to define because of familiarity and theological 
connotations, those of America were subject to more adventurous interpretations. As cen- 
turies of trade disclosed many aspects of Asia and Africa, and as their shores were visited 
with increasing frequency by European seafarers, the fantastic myths about them lost some 
of their credibility. With the discovery of the new Continent, many myths were trans- 
posed to the western hemisphere and, interpolated with the more than fabulous reports of 
the explorers and conquistadors, they grew to a somewhat heterogeneous complex. 

The native dress was easy to render, consisting of feather skirt and headdress. Here the 
artist came closer to understanding the esteem in which feathers were held among the na- 
tives than did those whom the natives had sought to honor: Montezuma's most precious 
gift to Cortez was a feather headdress, so little valued by the gold-thirsty receiver that it 
soon was completely forgotten and lost from sight until its recent rediscovery in Vienna. 

America is the hunter, or rather the huntress, with bow, arrow and quiver ; occasionally 
such a gory trophy as a human head betrays the nature of some of the hunts. This points to 
a preponderance of elements associated with the South- American continent rather than the 
Northern in the representation of America, as was logical with the wholesale invasion of 
the former by conquistadors, adventurers and Jesuits, in contrast to the stray attempts at the 
colonization of the latter. The majority of the animals in the representation of America 
bear out this contention: armadillo, parrot, llama and monkey belong to the southern con- 
tinent, where also flourish the alligator and the tortoise. Some of these animals were con- 
fused with those associated with Asia and Africa: the alligator may look like a crocodile, 
the llama like a camel, and even the sparsely used puma or jaguar can readily be taken for a 
lion. While the wild animals of Asia and Africa could be brought to Europe with, at worst, 
a short sea voyage, to be presented to sovereigns and exhibited to the curious, the long 
voyage from America made such transports from the West rather hazardous. The artist 
had to rely on more or less accurate descriptions, at least till the time came when he himself 
ventured out on his own exploration of the New World, to produce such spectacular 
accounts of its fauna and flora as the Surinaamsche Iusecteii by Maria Sibylla Merian, a result 
of her trip in 1699. 

After this, the addition of the fifth continent, Australia, was a definite anticlimax. The 
suspicion of its existence had hovered somewhere in the background of public acceptance 
for at least a century, but when finally put on the map by Captain Cook, it was practically 
ostracized by the artists. Whether through reluctance to give up the number of four that 
adapted itself easily to most decorating schemes, large or small, in favor of the rather un- 
wieldy number of five; or out of despair at the attempts to endow this newcomer, dark as 
Africa, dangerous as America, with distinct characteristics of its own; or, finally, out of tact 
and finesse to ignore its existence rather than evoke its utilization as a prison colony, the 
antipodal land did not win entrance into the allegorical representation of the Continents 
until the later nineteenth century. Then, as Australia with boomerang and curly hair mass, 
or as Oceania with a long shield, riding a dolphin, it figures as a rather tame postscript to the 
glorious reign of the Four Continents in the arts. 

Many concepts found their realizationin these figures : human curiosity and daring, con- 
quests, peaceful trade and thirst for riches, myths of eternal youth and of miraculous medi- 
cines, religious fervor, the festive spirit of masquerades, the romantic idea of the noble sav- 
age and the escapist myth of the lazy happiness of the Land of Cockaigne without toil or 
necessity. With only a few attempts at ethnic characterization, the allegorical figures of the 
Four Continents are embodiments of these concepts, rather than simple illustrations of geo- 
graphical units. Dignified, almost regal in their attitudes, they are symbolic sovereigns 
treated without condescension as one another's equals in a truly peaceful realization of glob- 
al coexistence on the easy terms of allegory. 

HEDY BACKLIN 



CATALOGUE 



CERAMICS 



Porcelain 

1 BLACKAMOOR. Dressed in diapered tunic and knee-length trousers, feather skirt and 
headdress, with quiver on back ; seated cross-legged on cushion, holding flaming lamp in each hand. 
Porcelain, polychrome and gilt. Probably Austria, Vienna; 1722-1730. Height 200 mm. Accession 
Number 1 960-1-70. 

2 PLATE. Octagonal marli with cartouches of the Four Continents : Asia reclining, with par- 
asol, camel, pyramid and pagoda; Europe as sailor, seated on cornucopia, with ship and cannon as 
attributes ; Africa, nude, seated on rock, with elephant and crocodile ; America with feather headdress, 
bow and arrow, and unidentifiable animal ; between cartouches, four diapered ovals with urns ; in 
centre, figure of Hope, with anchor, leaning against shield with the arms of William Ker (born 1775), 
Jane Martin on escutcheon of pretence; surrounding it, husk garland and four anchors. Porcelain, 
polychrome and gilt. China, for the British market ; 1 795-1 800. Diameter 248 mm. Ace. No. 1 960-1- 
68. 

3 ASIA. Female figure, holding censer and bouqet of tulips, seated on kneeling camel ; rocky 
base. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model of 1783 by Carl Luplau (died 1795). Denmark, Royal 
Copenhagen Porcelain Manufactory; late 19th century. Underglaze mark: waves, crowned. Height 
313 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-55A. Forming a set with 5 and 6. 



4 EUROPA AND THE BULL. Female figure seated on flower-bedecked reclining bull; 
oval base with oak leaf molding. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model of 1783 by Carl Luplau after 
a Naples model attributed to Filippo Tagliolini (died 1812). Late 19th or early 20th century. Under- 
glaze mark : waves, crowned ; overglaze : D v R 576. Height 265 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-56. Variant of 
a figure forming a set with 5, 5 and 6. 

5 AFRICA. Female figure with elephant-head coif, holding cornucopia and snake, seated on 
tree stump and attended by reclining lion ; rocky base. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model of 1 783 
by Carl Luplau. Late 19th century. Underglaze mark: waves, crowned; overglaze: DvR 577. 
Height 285 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-55B. Forming a set with 3 and 6. 

6 AMERICA. Female figure holding bow and arrow, seated on rock amidst aloe plants ; 
attributes : alligator and severed human head; rocky base. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model of 
1783 by Carl Luplau. Late 19th century. Underglaze mark: waves, crowned; overglaze: H.F. Height 
273 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-55C. Forming a set with 3 and 5. 

7 AMERICA. Undecorated variant of 6. Underglaze mark: waves, crowned. Ace. No. 
1 960-1 -5 7. 

S ASIA. Female figure, wearing loin cloth and holding fan, seated on jar. White porcelain; 

model by Arno Malinowski (1899- ). Denmark, Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Manufactory; 



about 1936. Undcrglaze mark: waves; overglazc: crown, Denmark; incised: 12486 BL-ch. Height 
230 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-50A. Forming a set with 9, 10, 11 and 12. 

g EUROPE. Female figure in swimming suit and cap, holding parasol, seated on pedestal. 

Undcrglaze mark: waves; overglaze: crown, Denmark; incised: 12485. Height 236 mm. Ace. No. 
1960-1-59B. Forming a set with 8, 10, 11 and 12. 

1 AFRICA. Female figure wearing grass skirt and circular necklet, holding shield, seated on 
drum. Undcrglaze mark : waves ; overglaze : crown, Denmark; incised: 124870. Height 233 mm. Ace. 
No. 1960-1—59C. Forming a set with 8, 9, 11 and 12. 

1 1 AMERICA. Female figure, wearing cape and head band with two feathers, seated on short 
totem pole. Undcrglaze mark: waves; overglaze: crown, Denmark; incised: 12489. Height 245 mm. 
Ace. No. 1960-1-59D. Forming a set with 8, g, 10 and 12. 

12 AUSTRALIA. Female figure, wearing grass apron, armlets and knee bands, and holding 
scallop shell, seated on palm stump. Underglaze mark: waves ; incised : 12488. Height 236 mm. Ace. 
No. 1960-1-59E. Forming a set with 8, g, 10 and 11. 

1 3 EUROPE AND AMERICA as putti. Europe, wearing loin cloth, seated on scrolled ped- 
estal, holding sceptre and orb; attribute: helmet; America, wearing feather apron and headdress, 
kneeling astride an alligator. Biscuit; after a Meissen model by Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723-1785). 
France, probably Mennecy ; last quarter of the 18th century. Height 216 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-64B. 
Forming a set with 1960-1-64A. Compare with Meissen model 36 and 38. 

14 ALLEGORY OF ASIA. Circular plaque painted with birds; cassowary, Chinese pheas- 
ant, Banda hoopoe, peacock and kingfisher. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; painted by C. Freyssin- 
ges after a gouache by Edme Francois Bouillat (1740-1810). France, Sevres, 1927. Signed: C. Freys- 
singes d'apres Bouillat. Diameter 160 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-63A. Forming a set with 13, 1 dand 1 7. 

1 3 ALLEGORY OF EUROPE. Circular plaque painted with birds ; pheasant, cock, ducks, 

white heron and bustard. Signed: C. Freyssinges d'apres Bouillat. Ace. No. 1960-1-63B. Forming a 
set with 14, 1 6 and ly. 

16 ALLEGORY OF AFRICA. Circular plaque painted with birds; Guinea-hens, Numidian 
cranes, spoon-bill and Angola jay. Signed: C. Freyssinges d'apres Bouillat. Ace. No. 1960-1-630. 
Forming a set with 14, 13 and 17. 

17 ALLEGORY OF AMERICA. Circular plaque painted with birds; cock-of-the-rock, 
little blue heron, red curlew, toucan, cockatoo, wild turkey (?) and macaw. Signed: C. Freyssinges 
d'apres Bouillat. Ace. No. 1960-1-63D. Forming a set with 14, 13 and 16. 

1 8 ASIA. Standing female figure, wearing turban and holding pieces of cinnamon and an ele- 
phant tusk ; attended by seated, turbaned putto, holding censer and horse-tail sceptre ; square pedestal. 
Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model by Wilhelm Christian Meyer (1 726-1 786) . Germany, Berlin ; 
1769-1770. Underglaze mark: sceptre. Height 350 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-44A. Forming a set with 
lg, 20 and 21. 

lg EUROPE. Standing female figure, wearing ermine and crown, holding goose pen and 

sceptre ; attended by putto, leaning on globe ; attributes : book and sword ; square pedestal. Underglaze 
mark: sceptre. Height 330 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-44B. Forming a set with 18, 20 and 21. 

20 AFRICA. Standing male figure, black, wearing tunic with feather belt and collar, and 

feather headdress, and holding bow ; attended by monkey, holding quiver with arrows ; square pedes- 
tal. Underglaze mark: sceptre. Height 322 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-44C. Forming a set with 18, lg 
and 21. 




Catalogue Number 23 



21 AMERICA. Standing male figure, wearing feather belt, long cape and headdress, holding 
sceptre and parrot ; attributes : crocodile and cornucopia. Square pedestal. Underglazc mark : sceptre. 
Height 345 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-44D. Forming a set with lS, ig and 20. 

22 ALLEGORY OF THE PEACE OF BASLE, 1795. King Frederick William II of Prus- 
sia standing at left ; Europe, seated and leaning on shield with relief of Europa and the Bull, receives the 
olive branch from the Angel of Peace standing behind her ; in back, Justice, seated ; inscription on cir- 
cular socle: iustam europae pacem. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model by Schwarzkopf and 
Riese, after a sketch of the court sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow (1764-1850). Germany, Berlin, 
1795. Underglaze mark: sceptre. Height 308 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-45. 

23 THE IMMACULATE VIRGIN, treading on a serpent, standing on the globe inscribed 
with the names of the Four Continents; scrolled pedestal. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model 
attributed to Wenzel Ney. Germany, Fulda; 1 770-1 780. Underglaze mark: F F, crowned; incised: 
Ney(?). Height 311 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-42. (Illustrated) 

24 TEA POT. Painted with allegorical scenes : for Africa, native digging up coral from the 
ground, another standing by with a lance, a third riding an elephant ; palms and two lions in back- 
ground ; for America, two Indians, one standing, the other kneeling, wearing feather headdresses ; alli- 
gator and three-master in background. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; after drawings by Jacopo 
Amiconi(i675-i752). Germany, Hochst; about 1765. Underglaze mark: wheel, crowned; impressed: 
I M. Height 100 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-46. 



25 CENTREPIECE: THE FOUR CONTINENTS. Figures of Asia, Europe, Africa and 
America placed on four sides of pierced, scrolled pedestal with fruit finial in center. Porcelain, poly- 
chrome and gilt; model attributed tojohann 062(1732-1762). Germany, Ludwigsburg; 1760-1765. 
Underglazc mark: DC, crowned. Height 310 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-50. (Illustrated) 

26 PEDESTAL FOR A FOUNTAIN: THE FOUR CONTINENTS. One kneeling and 
three standing atlantcs, one of them black with feather skirt and headdress, grouped on three sides of 
pedestal on rocky base. Porcelain, with polychrome and gilt decoration probably added later; model 
byjohann Gottlob Kirchner(i7o6-i738?). Germany, Meissen; 1728-1729. Underglazc mark : crossed 
swords. Height 304 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-32. 

27 AFRICA WITH SUGAR BASKET. Black figure, wearing feather skirt and headdress, 
standing beside flower-decorated basket with removable cover. Possibly representing AMERICA. 
Porcelain, polychrome; model by Johann Joachim Kandler (1706-1775). Germany, Meissen; about 
1730. Undcrglaze mark : crossed swords. Height 170 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-34. 

28 ORIENTAL FRUIT VENDOR. Female figure, black, wearing long mantle and squared 
headdress, carrying basket of lemons. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model by Johann Joachim 
Kandler (1706-1775). Germany, Meissen; 1730-1740. Height 139 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-39A. 

2g AFRICA. Standing black figure, wearing feather skirt and headdress, an elephant skin over 

right arm. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model byjohann Joachim Kandler (1 706-1 775). Germany, 
Meissen; about 1775. Height 159 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-40. 




Catalogue Number 25 




Catalogue Number 34 



jo AFRICA. Standing female figure, black, wearing flowered skirt and cape and feather head- 

dress, holding a stick. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt. Germany, Meissen; 1735-1745. Underglaze 
mark: crossed swords. Height 130 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-35. 

31 ASIA. Turbaned female figure, holding sceptre and censer, seated on camel facing left; in 
background, a palm tree. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model by Johann Joachim Kandler (1706- 
1775) and Johann Friedrich Eberlein (1696-1749), after a design by Gottfried Bernhard Gotz (1708- 
1774). Germany, Meissen; 1745-1750. Underglaze mark: crossed swords. Height 300 mm. Ace. No. 
1960-1-28A. Forming a set with 32, 33 and 34. Larger variant of 43. 

32 EUROPE. Crowned female figure, holding sceptre and orb, seated on piece of entablature 
beside a standing horse ; attributes : books, globe, palette, shield and suit of armor. Model of 1 746-1 750 
by Kandler and Eberlein; about 1760. Underglaze mark: crossed swords. Height 254 mm. Ace. No. 
1960-1-28B. Forming a set with 3 1, 33 and 34. 

33 AFRICA. Female figure, black, with elephant-head coif, feather tunic and leggings, hold- 
ing sheaf of wheat ; seated on crouching lion, facing left. Model by Kandler after a design by Gottfried 
Bernhard Gotz, 1 746-1750. Height 303 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-28C. Forming a set with 31, 32 and 34. 



34 AMERICA. Female figure with feather skirt, mantle and headdress, holding parrot and 

cornucopia ; seated on alligator facing right. Model by Eberlein and Peter Reinecke (171 5-1768), after 
a design by Gottfried Bernhard Gotz. Height 269 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-28D. Forming a set with 3 1, 
32 and 33. Larger, reversed variant of 48. (Illustrated) 

_55 ASIA AND AFRICA as putti. Asia wearing loin cloth, seated on loin holding a sceptre; 

Africa, black, wearing a loin cloth and elephant coif, holding coral, seated on scrolled pedestal. Porce- 



lain, polychrome and gilt; model by Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723-1785). Germany, Meissen; about 
1750. Undcrglaze mark: crossed swords. Height 131 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-36. Forming a set with 
36. Smaller variant of 37. Copied in biscuit (1960-1-64A), and in faience 67. 

36 EUROPE AND AMERICA as putti. Europe, wearing loin cloth, seated on scrolled ped- 
estal, holding sceptre and orb; America, kneeling, facing Europe, wearing feather apron and head- 
dress and holding a bow. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model of about 1750 by Friedrich Elias 
Meyer (1723-1785). Germany, Meissen; about 1765. Undcrglaze mark: crossed swords. Height 126 
mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-37. Forming a set with 33. Smaller variant ofjS. Copied in biscuit 13. 

37 ASIA AND AFRICA as putti. Asia, wearing loin cloth, seated on scrolled pedestal, hold- 
ing censer and half moon ; Africa, black, wearing loin cloth and elephant-head coif, seated on lion and 
holding ribbon and branch of coral; attributes: quiver and arrows. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; 
model by Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723-1785). Germany, Meissen; 1750-1760. Underglaze mark: 
crossed swords. Height 235 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-41A. Forming a set with 38. Larger variant of 33. 
Copied in biscuit (1960-1-64A), and in faience 67. 

38 EUROPE AND AMERICA as putti. Europe, wearing loin cloth, seated on scrolled ped- 
estal, holding sceptre and orb; attribute: helmet; America, wearing feather apron and headdress, 
kneeling astride alligator. Underglaze mark : crossed swords. Height 241 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-41B. 
Forming a set with 37. Large variant of 36. Copied in biscuit 13. 

39 EUROP A AND THE BULL. Female figure seated on bull ; two attendants offering flow- 
ers from a basket. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model attributed to Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723- 
1785). Germany, Meissen; 1750-1760. Underglaze mark: crossed swords. Height 220 mm. Ace. No. 
1 960-1 -3 1. 

40 ASIA. Standing female figure, wearing jewelled mantle and turban with half-moon, hold- 
ing sceptre and censer ; attributes : rehef cartouche with camel. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model 
by Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723-1785). Germany, Meissen; about 1775. Underglaze mark: crossed 
swords. Height 155 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-29A. Forming a set with 41, 42 and 43. 

41 EUROPE. Standing female figure, wearing ermine and crown, holding sceptre and orb ; 
attributes: book, globe, cornice fragment, cornucopia and rehef cartouche with horse. Height 153 
mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-29B. Forming a set with 40, 42 and 43. Compare with 61. 

42 AFRICA. Standing black female figure, wearing feather skirt, mantle and elephant-head 
coif; holding sheaf of wheat ; attributes : rehef cartouche with lion. Underglaze mark : crossed swords. 
Height 1 52 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-29C. Forming a set with 40,41 and 43. (Illustrated) 

43 AMERICA. Standing female figure, wearing feather skirt, mantle and headdress; attri- 
butes : parrot perched on arm, quiver with arrows and relief cartouche with alligator. Height 1 50 mm. 
Ace. No. 1960-1-29D. Forming a set with 40, 41 and 42. 

44 BLACKAMOOR, carrying covered cup on tazza. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt ; model 
of about 1740 by Johann Joachim Kandler (1706-1775), as part of a group with lady and cavalier. 
Germany, Meissen; late 18th century (?). Height 140 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-39B. 

43 ASIA. Turbaned female figure, holding sceptre and censer, seated on camel facing left ; in 

background, a palm tree. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt; model of 1745 by Peter Reinecke (1715- 
1768), a variant of Kandler's and Eberlein's larger model after a design by Gottfried Bernhard Gotz 
(1708-1774). Germany, Meissen; late 1 8th or possibly 19th century. Height 188 mm. Ace. No. 1960- 
1-38A. Forming a set with 46, 47 and 48. Smaller variant ofji. 

4 6 EUROPE . Crowned and ermined female figure, holding sceptre and orb, seated on rearing 

horse facing right; attributes: globe and book. Model of 1745 by Peter Reinecke after a design by 
Gottfried Bernhard Gotz. Height 215 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-38B. Forming a set with 43, 47 and 48. 

14 




Catalogue Number 42 

47 AFRICA. Female figure, black, with elephant-head coif, feather tunic and leggings, hold- 
ing lemon and sheaf of wheat, seated on crouching lion facing right; in background, a tree. Model of 
1745 by Peter Reinecke, after a design by Gottfried Bernhard Gotz. Height 190 mm. Ace. No. 1960- 
1-3 8c. Forming a set with 45, 46 and 48. 

48 AMERICA. Female figure with feather skirt, mantle and headdress, holding cornucopia 
and parrot, seated on alligator facing left. Model of 1 745 by Peter Reinecke, a variant of his and Ebcr- 
lein's larger model after a design by Gottfried Bernhard Gotz. Height 140 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-3 8d. 
Forming a set with 45, 46 and 47. Smaller, reversed variant of 34. 

4g AMERICA. Slender female figure, wearing feather headdress and holding a reed flute ; at 

her side, a small tree on which hangs a quiver with arrows. White porcelain. Germany, Nymphcn- 
burg; about 1930. Impressed mark : escutcheon, lozengy. Height 41 5 mm. Ace. No. 1 960-1-5 8. 

30 EUROPE. Female figure, wearing ermine and imperial crown, holding sceptre, seated on 

horse, with draped tree in back ; attended by putti, symbolic of war and peace. Porcelain, polychrome. 
Germany, probably Wiirzburg ; about 1775. Height 357 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-49. 

5 1 DANCING INDIAN. Holding club in right hand and shield in left, standing with one foot 
on starred globe; marble plinth. Porcelain, undecorated; model probably by Gaspare Bruschi. Italy, 
Doccia; about 1770. Height, without plinth, 307 mm. Ace. No. 1 960-1-53. 

52 ASIA. Female figure, with censer in left hand, seated on camel. Biscuit ; model perhaps by 
DomenicoBosello(ca. 1755-1821). Italy, probably Le Nove; late 18th century. Height253 mm. Ace. 
No. 1960-1-54A. Forming a set with 33, 34 and 33. 

33 EUROPE. Female figure with imperial crown, holding model of a church in right hand, 
seated on cornucopia; attributes: rearing horse and cannon. Height 255 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-54B. 
Forming a set with 32, 34 and 33. 

34 AFRICA. Female figure with feather skirt and elephant coif, holding cornucopia, seated on 
lion. Height 274 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-54C. Forming a set with 32, 33 and 33. 

33 AMERICA. Female figure with feather headdress, seated on rock; attributes : alligator and 

severed human head. Height 262 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-54D. Forming a set with 32, 33 and 34. 

15 



$6 AMERICA. Female figure, dressed in feather skirt, knee bands, epaulets and headdress, 

seated on alligator; right hand holding a ladle, left resting on back of a cockatoo; on back a quiver 
with arrows, and on the ground, a severed human head; marbled socle. Porcelain, polychrome and 
gilt. Spain, Alcora; about 1770. Height 245 mm. Ace. No. 1 960-1-52. Part of a set; compare with 
variant in Alcora faience, 71. 

57 ASIA. Standing female figure with flower wreath in hair, holding lamp and leaning against 
stone wall; attended by seated, bearded river god, camel and snake. Porcelain, polychrome and gilt. 
Spain, Buen Retire; 19th Century. Height 391 mm. Ace. No. 1 960-1-5 1 a. Forming a set with 5S, 5p 
and 60. 

58 EUROPE. Standing female figure, crowned, holding sceptre and leaning against model of 
circular chapel; attended by bearded river god and horse. Height 443 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-51B. 
Forming a set with 37, $g and 60. 

$g AFRICA. Standing female figure, black, wearing elephant head coif and holding scorpion 

and cornucopia; attended by bearded river god, lion and snakes. Height 38 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1- 
51c. Forming a set with 5 7, 5<?and 60. 

60 AMERICA. Standing female figure, wearing feather headdress ; attended by bearded river 
god and alligator. Height 370 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-51D. Forming a set with 57, 38 and 59. 

61 EUROPE. Standing female figure, wearing ermine and crown, holding sceptre and orb ; 
attributes: book, globe, cornice fragment, cornucopia, and a horse in relief. Soft paste, polychrome 
and gilt; after a Meissen model by Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723-1785). Sweden, Marieberg; 1766- 
1769. Incised mark: MB H F. Height 156 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-60. Compare with 41. 



Stoneware 

62 AMERICA. Standing female figure, American flag in her right and laurel wreath in her left 
hand, wearing a diadem with star and leaning against a tree trunk, at the base of which an American 
shield with eagle, stars and stripes is placed. Black basalt stoneware; model probably by W. Beattie. 
England, Etruria, Josiah Wedgwood and Sons;i89i. Impressed mark: Wedgwood England 
1 891. Height 348 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-62. 

Earthenware 

63 AFRICA. Standing figure, wearing elephant-head coif; accompanied by lion. Unglazed 
earthenware. France or Italy, first half of the 18th century. Height 250 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-90A. 
Originally from a set, including 64. 

64 AMERICA. Standing figure, wearing feather headdress and quiver and holding bow ; ac- 
companied by alligator. Height 253 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-90B. Originally from a set, including 63. 

63 AFRICA. Standing youth with elephant head coif, holding sheaf of wheat ; attended by 

lion. Polychrome faience. France, probably Strasbourg; second half of the 18th century. Height 150 
mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-61A. With 66, originally part of a set. 

66 AMERICA. Bearded man, wearing animal skin and feather headdress, and holding a club ; 
attended by turbancd child. Height 150 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-61B. With 63, originally part of a set. 

67 ASIA AND AFRICA as putti. Asia, holding flaming lamp and snake, back to back with 
Africa, black, wearing elephant-head coif, seated on lion. Polychrome faience ; after a Meissen model 
by Friedrich Elias Meyer (1723-1785). France, probably Niderviller; last quarter of the 18th century. 
Height 177 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-67. Compare with Meissen models 33 and 37. 

16 



68 ASIA. Female figure, wearing turban, seated on reclining camel; attributes: large turban 

with crescent moon, melon and censer. White faience. Spain, Alcora ; last quarter of the 1 8th century. 
Height 237 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-69A. Forming a set with 6g, 70 and 71. 

6g EUROPE. Female figure, crowned, with sceptre in right hand, seated on reclining horse; 

attributes: imperial crown and book. Height 247 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-69B. Forming a set with 68, 
70 and 71. 

70 AFRICA. Female figure, wearing elephant-head coif, seated on reclining lion; attribute : 
cornucopia. Height 245 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-69C. Forming a set with 68, 6g and 71. 

71 AMERICA. Female figure with feather headdress and with quiver on back, seated on alli- 
gator, the left hand resting on a cockatoo ; on the ground, a severed human head. Height 248 mm. 
Ace. No. 1960-1-69D. Forming a set with 68, 6g and 70. Variant of Alcora porcelain <,6. 




72 AMERICA, Stove tile. Relief: under an arch supported by columns, a female figure in 
feather skirt, holding shield and arrow, seated on a tortoise (or armadillo) ; crested with shield and two 
figures. Green-glazed earthenware. Austria or Switzerland, late 17th century. Height 296 mm. Ace. 
No. 1960-1-73. 

73 AMERICA (AMERIQUE) ; Stove tile. Relief figure in regal attire, with feather cape and 
aigrette, holding a club ; attributes : two macaws and tropical fruit. Unglazed buffearthenware. France ; 
17th century. Height 369 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-75. {Illustrated) 



17 



J4 TILE PANEL. Six square and three rectangular tiles, set in cement. St. Ignatius of Loyola 

kneeling on globe, set aflame by lightning emanating from his raised right hand ; in sky, halo-encircled 
IHS ; attended by four female figures, allegories of the Four Continents, and their animals : cockatoo, 
alligator, horse and camel. Inscription :et quid volo nisi ut accendatur / accendetur velut 
ignis zelus tuu. ps 70. Light buff earthenware with polychrome undcrglaze painting ; related to an 
engraving by Pctrus Costa (died 1761). Spain, Talavcra; early 1 8th century. Height 604 mm. Ace. No. 
1960-1-74. 




Catalogue Number yd 



75 ASIA. Tile with circular medallion; turbaned figure riding in howdah on back of elephant, 

with two attendants ; birds in foreground, turreted architecture in background. Pale buff earthenware 
with blue undcrglaze painting. Spain, 1 8th century. Height 271 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-72A. Forming 
a set with yd, yy and yS. 

yd EUROPE (EUROPA). Tile with circular medallion ; lady, cavalier and dog in foreground, 

watching a sedan chair, carried by two men; Spanish architecture in background. Height 262 mm. 
Ace. No. 1960-1-72B. Forming a set with y$, yy and yS. [Illustrated) 

yy AFRICA. Tile with circular medallion ; turbaned man and woman, with attendant holding 

parasol; attributes: monkey, ostrich and camel. Height 268 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-720. Forming a 
set with ys, yd and yS. 



yS AMERICA. Tile with circular medallion ; Indian in feather skirt and headdress, carried in 

high seat on poles by five similarly but less ornately dressed Indians, and attended by one holding a 
fan ; at left, a conquistador on horseback, and a cockatoo on a branch ; hi right background, a sailing 
ship. After illustration No. 37 by Jacques LeMoyne de Morgues in Brevis Narratio Eorum Quae iu 
Florida Americae Provincia Gallis Accidental; engraved by Theodor de Bry (1528-1598); Frankfort, 
1 591. Height 268 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-72D. Forming a set with 75, yd and yy. 



DRAWINGS 



7 p THE LANDING OF COLUMBUS IN THE NEW WORLD. Sketch for a lost fresco 

in the Sala del Consiglio of the Senatorial palace in Genoa. The irregularly-shaped composition shows 
at the left, Columbus, banner in hand, accompanied by his retinue, setting foot in the New World, and 
putting to flight two nude Indians. In the centre, in the sky, the allegory of Faith. Verso : pencil sketch 
of the same subject, though with changes in the composition. Drawing, pencil, pen and ink with grey 
wash on paper; by Francesco Solimena (1657-1747). Italy, Naples; 1715-1725. Height 263 mm.; 
length 542 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-92. 

So EUROPE. Bust-length female figure, wearing a crown and holding a sceptre. Colored pas- 

tels on paper; by Rosalba Camera (1675-1 757). Italy, Venice ; probably before 1720. Height 441 mm. ; 
length 342 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-7B. Forming part of a set with Si and S2. 

Si AFRICA. Bust-length negro female wearing a jewelled turban, pearl earrings and neck- 

lace, and holding a scorpion. Colored pastels on paper; by Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757). Italy, Ven- 
ice; probably before 1720. Height 43 S mm.; length 342 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-70. Forming part of a 
set with So and S2. (Illustrated) 




Catalogue Number Si 



19 



82 AMERICA. Bust-length female figure of an Indian, wearing ajcwellcd hair fillet decorated 

with plumes, and carrying an arrow; on her back, a quiver filled with arrows. Colored pastels on 
paper; by Rosalba Camera (1675-1757). Italy, Venice; probably before 1720. Height 435 mm.; 
length 340 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-7D. Forming part of a set with 80 and Si. 



GLASS 



53 STANDING CUP with figures of the Four Continents: Asia with arrow and bow, at- 
tended by lion; Europe, holding cornucopia and banner with the coats of arms of the House of Habs- 
burg and the eight Electors, seated on bull ; Africa, in large flat hat, seated on crocodile ; America with 
feather skirt and headdress, carrying arrow and coral, attended by elephant ; on foot, floral scrolls. 
Honey-comb-cut and engraved glass. Silesia; 1680-1690. Height 209 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-83 (Illus- 
trated) 

54 TUMBLER, with the figures of the Four Continents between scrolls and garlands: Asia 
(Asien), standing, holding censer; Europe (Europa) crowned, holding sceptre; Africa with tambour- 
ine and feather parasol; America, with feather skirt and headdress, holding spear and sponge (?). En- 
graved glass; after drawings by Abraham Bossc (1602-1676), engraved by Le Blond. Silesia, early 
1 8th century. Height 113 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-80. 




Catalogue Number 83 



#5 STANDING CUP with the figures of the Four Continents in circular medallions between 

scrollwork. Asia, in Turkish costume, seated, leaning on shield, holding lamp and long sceptre ; at- 
tended by camel; Europe, crowned, holding sceptre and cornucopia; attended by horse; attributes: 
globe, arms and armor ; Africa, holding grapes, paddle and pomegranate ; attended by faun, monkey, 
lion and elephants; America, kneeling, with feather skirt and headdress, holding arrow and bird; at- 
tended by crouching puma; in background, three kneeling figures in front of an idol. Cut and en- 
graved glass, after the frontispiece to Thesauri Philo-Politici Tertia Pars, Frankfort, 1623, attributed to 
Georg Keller (1568-163 4). Bohemia; first half of the 1 8th century. Height 208 mm. Ace. No. 1 960-1- 
78. 

86 STANDING CUP WITH COVER, with the figures of the Four Continents between 
rocaille columns. Asia in Turkish costume, holding sceptre with crescent; in background, camels and 
Oriental town; Europe, crowned, holding orb and sceptre, with scroll and terrestrial globe 
at her feet; in background, a gentleman, a river with ships, and a town; Africa in feather skirt 
and headdress, holding arrow; attributes: monkey, elephant and palm tree; America in feather 
skirt, collar and headdress, holding arrow ; attended by lion, crocodile and camel. Cut and engraved 
glass, with gold band on rim and cover, and gilded top of finial. Bohemia, 1 8th century. Height, with 
cover, 289 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-81. 

87 STANDING CUP with the figures of the Four Continents between vases of flowers : Asia, 
with turban, reaching into basket full of gems ; Europe, crowned, holding sceptre ; Africa with feather 
headdress and sceptre, holding bird; America, with feather cape and headdress, holding bow and 
arrow. Diamond-cut and engraved glass. Germany, probably Hesse or Lauenstein; 18th century. 
Height 257 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-84. 

88 STANDING CUP with medallions of two continents between scrollwork. Europe, 
crowned, holding sceptre and shield withHabsburg coat of arms; attributes: horse, helmet, and ban- 
ners (after engraving by Johannes Meyer (1655-1712), printed on a New Year's broadside, "Geogra- 
phia", for 1706 issued by the Burgerliche Bibliotcc, Zurich; Africa, holding tambourine and parasol, 
attended by buffalo and crocodile. Cut and engraved glass. Germany, Thuringia(?); 18th century. 
Height 254 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-82. 



METALWORK 



Silver 

Sg TWO TEA CADDIES. Chased silver with chinoiserie decoration by William Cripps, 

following motifs used by Paul de Lamerie (1688-1751). England, London; 1752-1753. Marks: leop- 
ard's head, lion passant. W. C, date letter r. Height 145 mm. and 151 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-iA and 
-IB. From a set originally comprising three pieces. 

go TEA URN. Atlas supporting globe adorned with repousse medallions of the Four Conti- 

nents. Silver, by Thomas Heming, goldsmith to George II. England, London; 1777-1778. Marks: 
leopard's head, lion passant, T. H. crowned, date letter b. Height 446 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-23. 

9 1 DISH. Oval, with four repousse martial trophies on marli and wreath around centre. Ap- 

plied, on marli, four high relief medallions with the Four Continents after Stefano della Bella's (1610- 
1664) playing-cards, published in Paris in 1646. Asia, turbaned, in chariot drawn by two elephants; 
Europe, crowned, drawn by horses ; Africa, with feather headdress and parasol, drawn by lions ; Amer- 
ica, in feather headdress and tunic, drawn by armadillos. In centre, relief plaque of Alexander and King 



Darius, lying dead in battle chariot, with attending warriors ; inscription : Alexander beweiint den Todt 
des Konigs Darius; after an etching of 1656 by Hans Ulrich Frank (1603-1680). Silver on silver-gilt, 
by Adolf Gaap (died 1695). Germany, Augsburg; 1689. Signed and dated; marks: AG and pine- 
apple. Length 719 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-21. [Illustrated) 




Catalogue Number 91 



92 SALVER. Lobed oval, on scrolled feet, with four-lobed relief medallions of the Four Con- 
tinents. Silver-gilt, engraved, byjohann Erhard Heuglin II (Master 1 71 7, died 1757). Germany, Augs- 
burg; about 1725. Marks: I E H and pineapple. Length 272 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-17. 

93 COVERED PORRINGER. On cover, four-lobed relief medallions of Africa and the 
Four Elements; on bowl, medallions of Fishing and Trapping. Silver-gilt, engraved, byjohann Er- 
hard Heuglin II (Master 1717, died 1757). Germany, Augsburg; about 1725. Marks: IEH and 
pineapple. Diameter 130 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-18. 

94 EWER. Helmet-shaped, with four-lobed relief medallions of Asia and America, and smaller 
medallions of Geometry, Music, Poetry, etc. Silver-gilt, engraved, by Nicolaus Ostertag (Warden 
1721, died 1741). Germany, Augsburg; about 1730. Marks: NO and pineapple. Height 270mm. Ace. 
No. 1960-1-19A. Forming a set with 9$. (Illustrated) 

95 DISH. On marli, four-lobed relief medallions of the Four Continents alternating with the 
Four Elements ; in centre, Hercules crowned by Victory. Marks : NO and pineapple. Diameter 526 
mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-19B. Forming a set with 94. 



g6 TAZZA. Scrolled base with four pairs of seated figures representing the Four Continents ; 

arms of Solomon Rothschild (1774-1 885). Silver, by Charles Odiot after a design by Felix Louis Jac- 
ques Duban (1 797-1 870). France, Paris ; about 1 840. Marks : vase in lozenge, bearded head, and odiot. 
a paris. Height 265 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-22. 

gy GOBLET. American Indian, in feather skirt and headdress, holding up globular cup, en- 

graved with coat of arms, two gentlemen shaking hands, and legend: Treuer Freunde Freundschafts 
PflichtEndert Sick im Grabe nicht. Silver-gilt, by Johann Jacob Adam (master 1748, died 1792) ; cut and 
engraved glass. Germany, Augsburg; 1 751-1753. Marks: IIA in oval, and pineapple. Height 259 mm. 
Ace. No. 1960-1-20. {Illustrated) 




Catalogue Number 94 



98 TABLE CLOCK. Terrestrial globe on stepped pedestal with figures representing the Five 

Continents : Asiatic woman with five-headed cobra, Europa with the Bull, African hunter with lion- 
ess, American Indian on horseback, South-Sea Islander on dolphin ; twenty-four-hour equatorial dial 
with the signs of the zodiac. Silver, by Atelier Borgila: designed by Erik Fleming (1 894-1954), mod- 
eled by Karl Hultstrom, works by Robert Engstrom. Presented by the Swedish Match Company to 
Ivar Kreuger (1 880-1932) on Iris fiftieth birthday. Sweden, Stockholm; 1930. Marks: Borgila, three 
crowns, S, head, D8. Height 460 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-16. [Illustrated) 

23 




Catalogue Number 97 



Other Metals 

pp ASIA. Relief plaque with arched top ; seated female figure holding branch of laurel and cen- 

ser; a camel at her right. Bronze; probably intended as inset in cabinet front. France, 17th century. 
Height 211 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-9A. Forming a set with 100, 101 and 102. 

100 EUROPE. Relief plaque with arched top ;seated female figure, wearing ermine and crown, 
holding sceptre and cornucopia ; at her right, horse, tempietto, papal crown, dish and ewer ; at her feet, 
sculpture head, books, palette and brushes. Ace. No. 1960-1-0B. Forming a set with gg, 101 and 102. 

1 1 AFRICA. Relief plaque with arched top ; female figure seated in left profile on lion ; hold- 
ing scorpion and cornucopia. Ace. No. 1960-1-9C. Forming a set with p9, 1 00 and 1 02. 

102 AMERICA. Relief plaque with arched top; female figure at right profile, with feather 
headdress and skirt ; holding bow and quiver in left and parrot on right hand, and stepping on alliga- 
tor's head. Ace. No. 1960-1-9D. Forming a set with pp, 1 00 and 101. 

1 03 AMERICA. Female figure dressed in feather skirt, cloak and headdress, seated on iguana ; 
in her right hand, a spear. Copper-gilt, repousse ; perhaps intended as inset in cabinet front. Germany, 
second half of the 17th century. Height 154 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-91. 



24 



104 ENGRAVED PLATE. Bust portrait of Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1517), framed by 

intertwining snakes and flanked by American Indian man and woman with child, a llama, puma and 
monkeys among trees. Brass ; probably used for the printing of a title page. Germany, Franconia; 17th 
century (?). Height 187 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-10. 

103 POCKET SUN DIAL AND COMPASS. Scrolled square frame with animal allegories 

of the Four Continents: camel, horse, lion and monkey; hinged quadrant, hour circle with gnomon 
and pendulum; in centre, recessed circular box with compass needle, the face engraved with mermaid 
and triton ; set on three adjustable legs. Gilt brass and steel. Germany, Augsburg ; about 1710. Marked : 
J.E.L. Augspurg. 48 G Gr. 60 x 65 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-12. (Illustrated) 

1 06 EMBLEM OF EUROPE. Applique ; panoplied cartouche with rearing horse. Gilt bronze. 
France, third quarter of the 1 8th century. Height 80 mm. Ace. No. 1960-121-1. 

1 07 EUROPE. Applique ; female figure wearing helmet and holding a sceptre and cornucopia, 
seated on reclining horse. Unfinished bronze. France, 1815-1830. Height 91 mm. Ace. No. 1960-121- 
4. Part of a set with 108 and log. 




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10S AFRICA. Applique; female figure holding cornucopia and scorpion, seated on lion. Gilt 

bronze. France, 1815-1830. Height 88 mm. Ace. No. 1960-12 1-3 a. Part of a set with loy and log. 

log AMERICA. Applique; female figure in feathered skirt and headdress, holding bow and 

arrow, seated on tortoise. Gilt bronze. France 1 815-1830. Height 92 mm. Ace. No. 1960-12 1-3B. Part 
of a set with 107 and 108. 

110 AMERICA. Applique; female figure holding bow and crossbow, seated on tortoise. 

Bronze, partly blackened. France, 1815-1830. Height 84 mm. Ace. No. 1960-141-2. 



TEXTILES 



1 1 1 TAPESTRY, oval detail; ASIA, a seated man, wearing a turban and loose robe, carries a 
sceptre and rests Ins arm on a bale, on which lies a crowned turban ; at his feet a scimitar ; at back appear 
heads of camels. Wool in shades of red, blue, brown and cream. Netherlands, late 1 7th century. Prob- 
ably a detail from a table-cover. 1M290 by 870 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-14A. Forming a set with 112, 
11 3 and 114. 

1 1 2 TAPESTRY, oval detail ; EUROPE, seated female, crowned and with sceptre ; beside her 
a rearing horse. 1 M3 1 5 by 870 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-14B. Forming a set with 111, 113 and 114. 



26 



1 13 TAPESTRY, oval detail ; AFRICA, a seated female, in light robe and broad-brimmed hat, 
carries a spear; at her feet a bow and quiver of arrows ; beside her an elephant. 1M3 10 by 870 mm. Ace. 
No. 1960-1-14C. Forming a set with ill, Ji2and 1 14. 

114 TAPESTRY, oval detail ; AMERICA, a seated Indian in low feathered headdress and skirt, 
carries a parrot on his right hand, and holds an arrow in his left. A puma lies at his feet. Enframement 
of drapery and volutes, with entwined branches. 1M3 10 by 860 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-14D. Forming 
a set with 111, 112 and 113. 




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Catalogue Number 1 13 



1 15 PANEL of silk, with design of allegorical figures representing the Four Continents. ASIA, 

a man seated on a camel, carrying an open parasol; behind him an ape, playing with a butterfly. 
EUROPE, a seated female, helmeted, rests her hand on a shield, on which appears a horse ; attributes : 
flags, trumpet, anchor, caduceus, cornucopia. AFRICA, men wearing plumed turbans spearing lions. 
AMERICA, seated Indians, in high feathered headdress, carrying a bow and playing with parrot on 
knee. Damask weave in pale yellow silk; after designs by Joseph Bourne and Pascal Picart. France, 
Lyon; late 18th century. Height 2M160, Width 530 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-89. (Detail illustrated) 



27 



VARIOUS 



1 16 ASIA (L'ASSIE). Game-counter box, rectangular, with hinged cover: female figure hold- 
ing censer and turban, seated in camel-drawn chariot, with attendant in background. Inside, game 
counters. Ivory, polychrome on rose ground, engraved; after a drawing by Martin de Vos (1532- 
1603), engraved by Julius Goltzius. France, late 17th century. Length 85 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-13A. 
Forming a set with 1 1 7, 1 18 and 1 lg. 

117 EUROPE (L'EUROPE). Game-counter box, rectangular, with hinged cover ; female fig- 
ure, crowned, holding sceptre and orb, seated in horse-drawn chariot. Inside, game counters. Ivory, 
polychrome on white, engraved. Length 83 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-13B. Forming a set with 116, nSn, 
and ng. 

118 AFRICA (L' A FRIQUE). Game-counter box, rectangular, with hinged cover ; female fig- 
ure, holding parasol and tambourine, seated in lion-drawn chariot. Inside, game counters. Ivory, poly- 
chrome on yellow ground, engraved. Length 84 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-130. Forming a set with 116, 
117 and 119. 

1 lg AMERICA (LAMERIQUE). Game-counter box, rectangular, with hinged cover ; female 

figure in feather skirt and headdress, carrying bow, quiver and tomahawk, seated in unicorn-drawn 
chariot. Inside, game counters. Ivory, polychrome on maroon ground, engraved. Length 84 mm. 
Ace. No. 1960-1-13D. Forming a set with 116, 117 and 118. 

120 SNUFF BOX. On cover, in relief, female figure representing Asia, with high headdress 
and censer, seated on camel; in background, lions, elephant and camel in landscape; sides of box 
diapered, with cartouche in front. Ivory, with silver-gilt thumb rest and hinge by C. C. France, 18th 
century; after a drawing by Martin de Vos (1532-1603). Length 74 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-26. 

121 FAN, with scene showing project of a canal through Nicaragua, and figures allegorical of 
the Four Parts of the World. Centre, map of Central America with proposed canal and Lake of 
Nicaragua. Left, Mercury, God of Commerce, indicates to group of allegorical figures the passage to 
the Pacific. Right, the King of Spain regards the figure of Fame who holds above him the crown of 
immortality which will be his upon opening the passage which would lead to the welfare of all nations. 
Reverse, map of North and Central America and explanation. Paper, engraved and colored. Mounted 
on ivory incised in silver. France, 19th century. Length 270 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-87. 

1 22 FAN, with figures allegorical of American Independence. Centre, a group of men sawing 
off horns of a cow, representing England, while others milk her. Left, a man with his foot on the 
British lion, further left two men in attitudes of dismay, beside them a parcel marked, TEE. Right of 
centre, France and America embrace, and beyond a group of mourning women, representing nations 
of Europe, display a legend "Epoque fatale, 4 juillet 1776— le 13 mai 1778." Reverse, legend giving 
explanation of scenes. Paper, design in colored lithography. Bone mount. France, late 18th century. 
Length 280 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-86. 

1 23 FAN, with figures allegorical of America and France. Centre, Minerva receives from Louis 
XVI the crown of peace while with her left hand she extinguishes the torch of war. Left, an Indian 
carries a trident and Liberty bonnet, and holds in his right hand a card with the words, Etats Unis. 
Right, an amour and Indian child plant a May Tree with banner bearing the words, Vive la Paix. 
Legend at right explains the scene. Paper, painted in polychrome and printed. France, late 18th cen- 
tury. Length 280 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-85. 

124 OSTRICH EGG. Carved with oval cartouches with allegories of the Four Continents: 
Asia, turbaned, holding sun disk, with elephant in background ; Europe, helmeted, holding shield and 
lance, with trumpet, drum, cannon and banner as attributes ; Africa, holding parasol, with two lions ; 



America, with feather headdress, holding arrows, with palm tree and alligator in background; after 
engraving by Johannes Meyer (1655-1712), printed on a New Year's broadside, "Geographia," for 
1706 issued by the Burgerliche Bibliothec, Zurich; on the pointed end, a quatrefoil and acanthus 
wreath. Germany, Franconia; 17th century. Height 157 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-27. (Illustrated) 



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Catalogue Number 124 



125 STANDING CUP WITH COVER. Tapering cup carved with the figures of the Four 
Continents : Asia with turban and crescent sceptre ; Africa with ostrich-feather headdress and parasol ; 
Europe with imperial crown, orb and sceptre ; America with feather headdress and cape, and sceptre ; 
stem with two putti ; foot with elephant and rhinoceros interlocked in battle, and eagle ; domed cover 
with six putti in relief and one, standing, as finial. Rhinoceros horn, mounted in silver-gilt. Germany, 
probably Franconia; 17th century. Total height 504 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-25. 

1 26 ASIA. Panel in gadrooncd frame. Female figure, swinging censer, seated in chariot drawn 
by two camels ; in background, an army beleaguering a hill town. Carved and inlaid wood (Egerwcrk) , 
after a drawing by Martin de Vos (1532-1603), engraved by Julius Goltzius. Bohemia, late 17th or 
early 18th century. Height 465 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-15A. Forming a set with 12J, 12Sm\& I2g. 



1 2 j EUROPE. Panel in gadrooncd frame. Crowned female figure, holding sceptre and orb, 

seated under laurel wreath in chariot, drawn by a pair of horses; in background, grazing cattle and a 
burning castle. Height 466 mm. Ace. No. 1060-1-15B. Forming a set with 126, 128 and 129. 

12S AFRICA. Panel in gadrooned frame. Nude female figure, holding tambourine and feather 

parasol, seated in chariot with crocodile arm rests, drawn by two lions; in foreground, scaly quadru- 
ped; in background, two elephants, camel, lion and ostrich. Height 465 mm. Ace. No. 1960-1-15C. 
Forming a set with 126, I2y and 129. 

129 AMERICA. Panel in gadrooned frame. Semi-nude female figure with feather headdress, 
holding bow and sceptre, seated in chariot drawn by two unicorns ; in foreground, an armadillo ; in 
background, men with bows inside and outside a circular enclosure. Height 466 mm. Ace. No. 1960- 
1-15D. Forming a set with 126, 127 and 128. 

130 FAN, with female figures allegorical of the Four Continents. On the face, centre, the eques- 
trian statue ofjoseph I of Portugal, by Joachim Machado de Castro, erected in Lisbon, 1775. Left and 
right, seated females, clad in flowing skirt and scarf, direct attention to the statue; left, Europa with a 
white horse, right, America with an alligator. Reverse, the statue being raised by a crane, assisted by 
attendant putti; above, an inscription : "Suspendida em 20 dc Mavo de 1775." At side, held by putti, 
another inscription :"Fundida em 1 5 deoutubrode 177 . . . Coiocadaem26demavode 1775. "(Cast 
the 15 th of October, 177 . . . Erected the 26th of May, 1775.) Left, a dark-skinned female figure, Africa, 
in short skirt leans against a lion ; right, a female in full skirt and scarf is seated beside a camel. Paper, 
painted. Mounted on ivory with silver inlay. Portuguese India, late 1 8th century. Length 0M240. Ace. 
No. 1960-1-S8. 



30 



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